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Occupational safety and health risk assessment

since the international organization for standardization successfully issued the ISO9000 quality management and quality assurance series of international standards and the ISO14000 environmental management series of international standards, there has been an upsurge of certification of quality management systems and environmental management systems around the world. However, only the systematic management of quality and environment can not achieve the perfect management realm of customer satisfaction, social satisfaction, employee satisfaction and owner satisfaction, so as to achieve economic, social and environmental benefits at the same time. The occupational safety and health management system is produced and developed in response to the management needs of the 21st century. Nearly 100 enterprises around the world have introduced this management system and passed the third-party certification. The realization of maximum environmental protection department certification in this body can not only bring enterprises a more effective occupational safety and health management tool, but also evolve into an international trade trend with the attention of the international community to human rights, Become a market access certificate

for the top management of an enterprise, the essence of the occupational safety and health management system is a kind of loss control. It is a systematic work, including occupational safety and health risk assessment, making decisions on appropriate control, implementing the loss control system and monitoring it, aiming at all the key places of the environment and the company's operation that may cause losses. One of the keys to its success is whether it can comprehensively and correctly identify potential safety and health hazards, assess the degree of risk, the possibility of occurrence and the consequences once it occurs, so as to arrange management plans. This paper will discuss the methods and procedures of safety and health risk assessment

key words: occupational safety and health, hazard source, risk, assessment

I. what is occupational safety and health risk assessment

occupational safety and health refers to the conditions and factors that affect the health of employees, temporary workers, contractors, visitors and other personnel in the workplace. Among these conditions and factors, there may be one kind of hazard source, which may potentially cause poor health, injury, damage to property, harm to the environment, workplace damage or both. We generally call these accidents that cause death, occupational disease, injury, property loss or other losses as accidents. The combination of the possibility of an accident caused by one or some hazard sources and the consequences it will cause is the occupational safety and health risk

to carry out occupational safety and health risk assessment, we should first identify the hazard sources in their products/services, activities and working environment, recognize the existing risks and understand their characteristics, such as the occurrence probability, hazard scope, possible loss and other indicators to evaluate; Then the organization evaluates whether the risk can be tolerated, that is, whether the degree of risk has been low enough to be tolerated by the organization after considering its laws and its occupational safety and health policies; Finally, make a decision to tolerate, control and eliminate the risk. Generally, a procedure or working process specially for occupational safety and health risk assessment should be established, and a more systematic way should be adopted to conduct risk assessment, so as to ensure that the conclusions are comprehensive, detailed and effective. This process should take into account the cost and time of analysis and identification, as well as the availability of reliable data. Information obtained for regulatory or other purposes can be used in this process. Organizations can also take into account the actual control degree of occupational safety and health risks they are concerned about, as well as their current and related past inputs and outputs to products/services, activities and work environment. In general, the process or procedure of risk assessment is to answer the following questions: what will go wrong? How serious is it? How likely is it to happen? How should we deal with it

II. Hazard identification

the organization should send personnel with risk assessment ability to do this work, which can be carried out by one or more teams familiar with the equipment, materials and working methods used, in the way of mutual exploration and observation. In most cases, the participation of experts is necessary

first, analyze the activities, products or service processes, which can be carried out by department, and should cover all activities, products or service processes of the company, including routine and unconventional activities, the activities of all personnel close to the workplace (including subcontractors and visitors), and the facilities of the workplace, whether provided by the organization or others. Different activities, products and services in the past, present and future should be taken into account in this process; Normal operation conditions, shutdown and start-up conditions, as well as reasonably foreseeable abnormal conditions or potential hazards associated with emergencies. This identification process requires the collection of equipment and facilities related to activities; Input and contact raw materials and energy; And the output products and related activities, services and other information

the risk assessment team should investigate the hazard sources one by one according to the list of activities and processes. The hazard sources basically include chemical, mechanical, biological, ergonomic, electrical, fire protection, inflammables and explosives, occupational diseases, working environment and other categories. In order to ensure no omission, the following structured methods can be used to identify hazard sources:

1) use checklists and item lists, such as hazardous materials and hazardous process lists, implemented key work lists, key component lists, maintenance records, safety first aid records, etc

2) study the risk and operability

3) failure mode and consequence analysis (FMEA) of design and process

4) the analysis of key work is used to identify the methods that may lead to great risks, and systematically determine the actual loss and the environment

5) fishbone diagram analysis, tracing back from an accident or nonconformity, so as to determine the basic or deep causes

6) the tree analysis of an event is contrary to the analysis idea of the fishbone diagram. It predicts the consequences of an event

III. determine the scope and degree of loss

the losses caused by accidents caused by risks are various, and the losses generally come from the following aspects:

1 the life injuries of employees themselves and others

2 health injury (including psychological injury) of employees themselves and others

3 damage and loss of data, equipment and facilities (including failure to work normally for a long time in a certain period)

4 costs of handling accidents (including shutdown, accident investigation and other indirect costs)

5 the increase of economic burden of enterprises and employees

6 mental, psychological and economic injuries and losses of employees themselves and their families, friends and society

7 criticism and criticism of government, industry and social public opinion

8 corporate image damage caused by legal investigation and exposure

9 loss of confidence of investors or financial sectors

10 damage and loss of enterprise reputation and loss of business opportunities

11 the market competitiveness of products decreases

12 complaints, complaints, criticisms, etc. of employees themselves and others

among the above losses, some are direct losses and some are indirect losses. The indirect losses are generally much greater than the direct losses, and their proportion is like icebergs. The mountains below the water surface are much larger than those above the water surface

the organization can set the scoring standard for the severity of the impact of safety and health accidents according to its own characteristics, priorities and accident loss categories. This standard can be qualitative or quantitative, as long as it can accurately evaluate and compare the severity of accidents caused by various risks

IV. assess the probability of accidents caused by risks

the necessary conditions for accidents caused by risks need to be triggered by external factors in addition to hazard sources. To evaluate the probability of accidents caused by risks, we must first find out the external causes that may trigger accidents. External factors are divided into personal factors and work/system factors

personal factors include:

1) insufficient physical/physiological structure ability, such as height, weight, insufficient stretching, material sensitivity or allergies

2) insufficient thinking/psychological ability, such as emotional distress, psychosis, insufficient understanding ability, poor judgment, poor sense of direction, etc

3) physiological or psychological pressure, such as injury or disease, sensory overload and fatigue, exposure to extreme temperature, movement obstruction, lack of oxygen, etc

4) thinking or psychological pressure, such as emotional overload, fatigue due to workload or speed, requiring extreme concentration, repetition, inflexibility, requiring dull attention, etc

5) lack of knowledge, such as insufficient training, insufficient guidance, insufficient initial training, insufficient update training, misunderstanding instructions, etc

6) lack of skills, such as insufficient internship; Lack of performance opportunities and training

7) incorrect driving forces, such as incorrect incentives, correct performance, incorrect attempts to save time and effort, incorrect attempts to avoid discomfort, lack of reward, inappropriate colleague competition, etc

such as earthquake, vehicle impact, explosion, etc.

work/system factors include:

1) improper guidance/or supervision, such as unclear or conflicting delegation, insufficient delegation of rights based on the revenue of $50billion, insufficient policies, procedures, operation methods or guidance, etc

2) improper engineering design, such as insufficient consideration of human factors/ergonomics, standards, specifications and. Or insufficient design basis, insufficient operation preparation, etc

3) improper procurement, such as insufficient purchase application specifications, improper delivery methods or routes, incorrect storage materials, incorrect transportation materials, insufficient safety and health data transmission, insufficient identification of hazardous items, etc

4) insufficient maintenance, such as insufficient lubricating oil and maintenance, insufficient inspection equipment, etc

5) improper tools and equipment, such as insufficient consideration of human factors/ergonomics, improper standards or specifications, insufficient supply, insufficient adjustment/repair, improper equipment cleaning and replacement, etc

6) improper working standards, such as insufficient development standards, improper standard communication, insufficient maintenance standards, etc

7) loss, such as insufficient use plan, incorrect extension of service life, incorrect calculation of load and utilization rate, incorrect use, etc

8) abuse or misuse, such as intentional or unintentional misuse approved by the supervisor

for example, accidents caused by employees' Misconduct include: operating equipment without permission; Neglecting safety measures; Operate at an incorrect speed; Remove safety equipment; Use faulty equipment; Neglect to use personal protective equipment correctly; Incorrect loading and unloading; Incorrect placement; Incorrect lifting; Repair the running equipment; Fooling around; Affected by alcohol and/or drugs, etc. The hazard sources in the working conditions/environment are protected, and the cover or fence is insufficient to meet the needs of social products and environmental protection; Defective tools, equipment or materials; Squeeze or restrict activities; Insufficient warning system; Danger of fire and explosion; Dangerous environmental conditions such as gas, dust, smoke, fog, water vapor, etc; Noise situation; Radiation situation; High or low temperature situation; Insufficient or excessive lighting; Insufficient ventilation, etc

a scoring table of the occurrence probability of safety and health effects should be designed to qualitatively or quantitatively evaluate and compare the probability of accidents caused by various risks. The scoring basis can be based on the contact time between personnel and hazard sources or the occurrence probability of external causes

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